There are numerous sanitation issues facing the communities within which Umande Trust works in Kenya. First, open defecation is rampant in urban neighborhoods as a result of limited access to sanitation, unhealthy hygiene practices and lack of appropriate technology choices. Second, insurance and micro-finance agencies often do not view investments in urban sanitation as bankable and profitable. Third, even in cases of improved access, user-pay pricing structures inhibit universal access by all members of the household, especially urban poor women and children. And finally, the existing cumbersome cash payments are prone to under-reporting, abuse, and reduced spending on operation and maintenance of improved sanitation services because cash can easily be misplaced or stolen.