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WASH Impact Network Launches in India

Peter Blair

WASH Impact Network Launches in India

Bringing together 16 WASH innovators from across India, R4D launched the WASH Impact Network, in partnership with Dasra and Millennium Water Alliance (MWA), in Mumbai, India on September 24, 2015.

Participants came from all across India including Uttar Pradesh, Bangalore, and Maharashtra. The workshop focused on training participants to better understand how to measure their impact - through theory of change, and monitoring and evaluation - and also how to create a sustainable fundraising strategy. The training was delivered by Dasra, R4D and 3ie. Across the four days of the workshop, the participants had opportunities to receive insights from funders, and practice using planning and strategizing tools, discuss common challenges in monitoring and evaluation and fundraising, and to gain practical knowledge on how to overcome those challenges.

"There are so many things I picked up yesterday. Clients often ask me what we should do next, once we have provided clean safe drinking water. The WASH Impact Network will place me in a better position to recommend things to them, such as recommending programs in menstrual hygiene to villages," said Lekshmi Krishnan from Waterlife India.

Following four days of working together, and learning new approaches to increase their impact, the organizations joined together with a range of international funders and organizations to officially launch the Network. Organizations had a chance to meet funders, and hear feedback on what funding organizations look for when choosing to invest in innovative WASH programs.

During the workshop, the R4D team interviewed all 16 participants to better understand how the WASH Impact Network can support WASH organizations. We asked questions to understand what the barriers are to implementing new ideas, and also what sort of relationships they would like to build with other WASH organizations to increase their impact.

The workshop has brought together a group of strong social organizations working in the WASH space to not just celebrate their successes but also discuss the challenges that they face while serving their community. The interaction amongst the organizations in the last 2 days gives confidence that R4D and Dasra‘s aim to facilitate a sustainable community of these organizations by the end of the workshop will be achieved,” said workshop facilitator Megha Jain of Dasra.

Over the next year, the WASH Impact Network will work with organizations in both India and East Africa (partnering with MWA) to better understand the challenges facing WASH organizations, understand how organizations implement new ideas, and create a network of innovators that can support each other to provide improved WASH services and products to those in need.

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The Business Model Canvas: A Tool for Social Enterprises, Not-for-Profits, and Everyone In Between

Thu Do

“An accurate canvas helps you communicate the true costs of your operations. Clearly and effectively. Use that canvas to inform the design of your future revenue strategies.” - Byrann Alexandros, The Canvas Kit

The Business Model Canvas (BMC) is a one-page visual tool that demonstrates how resources flow through your organization, by looking at nine key elements of any enterprise. Though non-profits do not usually consider themselves “businesses,” they still need to know clearly where their funding is coming from, and how to use it to deliver their social mission. The BMC tool is used to clarify where revenue is coming from, where it is going, and how it is creating the intended impact. It is important to have a quality BMC to convey any organization’s “business” logic so that informed strategic decisions can be made. A strong BMC can be used to show potential funders or investors that your organization is aware of it's current position, and is thinking strategically about the future. 

 

 

The nine key questions a business model canvas helps you explore are:

  • Who are your key partners?
  • What are your key activities?
  • What key resources do you need to do those activities?
  • What is your value proposition?
  • How do you interact with your "audience"?
  • How do you reach them?
  • What do your "audience segments" look like?
  • How much will it cost to do your activites and reach your audience?
  • How much will you make, or what is your revenue stream?

The BMC can be used as both a communications and strategy tool. The exercise can help programs think about where they are now, where they want to go, and how they will get there. And the final product can be used to demonstrate to donors your current and future strategies. 

 

What to do next?

Members of the WASH Impact Network will be able to reach out to experts to get coaching and support when they use this tool. More information on how to access this support is provided in a monthly newsletter distributed to the Network which aims to provide programs with resources and tools to increase their impact.

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Organizations in the WASH Impact Network Gather for First Workshop in Mumbai

Emily Endres

On September 21-24, 2015, Results for Development (R4D) and its partner Dasra brought together sixteen organizations in the WASH Impact Network to Mumbai, India to connect and learn.

The workshop content was tailored to respond to results from a needs assessment conducted this year. Over 100 organizations participated in the needs assessment, which aimed to identify barriers to innovation within the WASH sector in India and East Africa. Some of the top needs expressed by organizations in India informed the content of the first workshop, including theory of change, monitoring and evaluation, and fundraising.

Here are five highlights from the workshop:

1. Building relationships and setting the stage

The workshop began with a round of ice breakers that helped participants get to know each other, and also understand the way communication works—and often doesn’t work. For example, one game called “Finding Funding” required blindfolded volunteers to find an object by getting directions from two different groups—one that was unable to speak and the other that was unable to see.

Mr. Gautam Prakash from Reap Benefit explained what he learned from the activity: “We need to change our method of communication—that was my main takeaway from the finding funding game. There are gaps between what we hear and what we say and what we assume. Sometimes you have to work with very unreceptive listeners, and then you need to find out a better way to communicate.”

The game and Gautam’s reflection on it set the stage for the rest of the workshop that focused on how to use evidence and frameworks to measure impact, and then communicate that in a concise, clear way that responds to the expectations of funders.

2. Theory of Change

The first step in being able to communicate the impact of a program is to be able to understand the theory of change behind it. Led by Hugh Waddington from the International Initiative for Impact Evaluations (3ie), participants practiced creating a Theory of Change based on real-world examples of WASH programs. Participants were able to work together in small groups to identify the end impact they are trying to achieve, and the building blocks it would take to get there. They looked at the differences between inputs, outputs, and outcomes, and the assumptions they made along the way.

When participants were asked to identify one thing they learned from the workshop that they will implement within their own organizations, fifteen out of sixteen reported that they will create a formal theory of change for their programs.

3. Monitoring and Evaluation

Activities on days two and three built on the Theory of Change framework by designing Specific, Measurable, Actionable, Relevant, and Time-Bound (SMART) indicators to measure the outcomes they chose. Groups presented the resulting M&E frameworks to the room and received valuable feedback from their peers. In addition, Mr. Waddington from 3ie also demonstrated the value of impact evaluations and online resources that can help program managers determine what kind of data is available to help inform their programs.

4. Building Partnerships

One of the aims of the WASH Impact Network is to connect organizations to each other and foster peer learning. Megha Jain from Dasra facilitated two sessions called “Know Your Peers,” which are rounds of quickfire presentations from participants in which they give an overview of the work that they do, and their biggest challenges. Their peers were then able to offer advice or services to the presenters, starting a larger conversation among the cohort on mutual support and peer learning.

5. Getting Funder Ready

One of the top needs expressed by WASH innovators in the needs assessment was operational financing. In order to help program managers address this need, participants created a three-page funder document that expressed their vision and described their program and theory of change. Experts at Dasra coached participants in the creation of these documents, and participants also received feedback from their peers. These documents can be adapted and expanded for a variety of funding applications and proposals.

In order to understand what donors are looking for, representatives from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Arghyam, and HSBC were invited to participate in a funder roundtable where they discussed what they look for in a grantee, what programs they fund in the WASH sector and why, and their visions for the future—insights rarely accessible to on-the-ground program managers in the WASH sector.

Workshop participants will attend a second capacity building workshop in spring of 2016 that builds on the theory of change, M&E and fundraising skills learned in this workshop. A workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya in November 2015 will host 15-20 WASH innovators from East Africa, hosted by R4D and its regional partner, Millennium Water Alliance

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What are the biggest barriers for WASH innovators?

Thu Do

The problem we saw

The WASH sector is a highly fragmented field, but one that has great potential for innovation to improve people’s health and lives. There is ample evidence that the best solutions to challenges in the developing world are being designed by innovators and entrepreneurs that live within those communities. But these local organizations face numerous barriers. At Results for Development Institute (R4D), we wanted to better understand the shared barriers across the WASH sector, and how to support organizations in overcoming them.

To do this, R4D formed the WASH Impact Network. We worked closely with our partners, Dasra in India and Millennium Water Alliance in East Africa, to form a cohort of over 120 organizations operating across 17 countries to share good ideas and lessons across continents.

Through the Network, we aim to learn about how the learning and innovation process occurs for organizations across two diverse implementing environments, while transforming that information into beneficial skill-building opportunities for the organizations in the cohort. We are seeking answers to how innovation spreads and what are the factors that accelerate or impede uptake using the following approach: 

Listening as the first step towards solutions

We asked local organizations in India and East Africa - “what are your greatest organizational needs in order to increase your impact?” – to understand barriers to innovation and how external actors can best support innovation in WASH. The top needs of organizations found across India and East Africa were:

1. Operational financing - Programs need access to funds to support their core activities and/or expansion.

  • “We need funding for research and development. Money given by donors goes into implementation but often doesn’t go into research and development, making it difficult to develop new innovations. Donors like when money goes into printing posters and booklets but not the brainwork.” - Sanitation organization in India using educational behavior change
  • "We need [money] to invest in equipment used in order to improve the product and production process.” - A menstrual hygiene management organization in Kenya

2. Technical Expertise - Programs need increased technical knowledge or research-based evidence to improve their interventions.

  • “We want to learn about new technologies that would reduce construction costs and increase durability, which can be linked to waste management.” - A school sanitation and hygiene organization in India
  • "[We would like] assistance and advice on managing a rotating fund [microfinance] for small-scale innovations.” - Sanitation organization in Uganda

3. Networking - Programs need connections and peer network opportunities for knowledge sharing with other WASH organizations.

  • “In sanitation, organizations seem to work in silos and do not share information… we wish there was somewhere we could go to get inspiration and ideas.” - Commercial public toilet organization in India
  • “We want to be connected with other NGOs who are working in water and sanitation, including working with them to sell the filters to consumers. We would like to team up with these other organizations and teach people how to use the filters.” - Ceramic water filter organization in Ethiopia
The methodology at a glance

The R4D WASH team conducted the needs assessment by collecting qualitative information from organizations during phone interviews with the director or relevant program manager from each organization, learning more about the innovative aspects of the program, and also focusing on “what are the top three organizational barriers to increasing your impact?”.

Responses were recorded and coded to create 12 categories of needs that emerged and are intended to be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive across the responses we heard from all organizations. The top three needs were operational financing, networks, and technical expertise, but also important to our cohort were monitoring and evaluation, strategic planning and organizational development, among others.

The cohort

These needs come from a cohort that is made up of organizations that range in size from one-person organizations to larger and more established entities that have multiple programs serving several communities or entire regions. The geographic coverage of East Africa and India, combined with the differing organizational profiles, provides a cross section of many types of innovators at different stages of maturity.

Top needs of WASH Innovators by WASH sub-sector and funding model

Operational financing was most demanded by hybrid organizations. Perhaps this indicates that there is a gap in financing for the “social enterprise”

Among the 3 types of organizations, non-profits have the highest need for monitoring and evaluation. Perhaps this indicates a need to dig deeper into what are the incentives – do organizations see value in M&E to improve decisions or only for reporting, and why is it lower among hybrid and for-profit organizations?

Fundraising is not voiced as a top need, despite operational financing being the highest identified need. Do organizations have dedicated fundraising staff already? Is there a gap in the donor market? We explore these questions at regional workshops and through baseline surveys

Using the needs assessment to examine how innovators learn and share solutions

We believe systematically identifying needs in the WASH Impact Network is the preliminary step in an exciting learning agenda. By listening and co-learning with this cohort, we hope to provide a platform for innovators to promote their work more widely, creating a two-way channel for innovation that connects programs to sustainable funding and donors to innovative programs.

Lessons and innovations that emerge from the WASH Impact Network will be used to inform the larger international development community on what factors accelerate or impede idea uptake in the WASH sector, which also apply to innovators in the health and education sectors as well.

We are conducting follow up interviews with a sub-section of our cohort at regional workshops and through focus groups to better understand the barriers to implementing new ideas. This will include the operational environment, and how implementing approaches can be learned and improved on across organizations. Our participatory and iterative learning and capacity building approach is described in Figure 1:

Staying engaged

Please continue to follow the WASH Impact Network newsletters for more grassroots driven insights on the barriers to the uptake of new ideas and learn about the best approaches to supporting local organizations designing local innovations.

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The WASH Impact Network: East Africa Launches in Nairobi

Morgan Benson

The WASH Impact Network, in partnership with Millennium Water Alliance, celebrated the official launch of the East Africa cohort of the Network recently in Nairobi, Kenya. The launch ceremony was held at the end of a three-day workshop that was attended by program leaders of 19 water, sanitation, and hygiene innovations. The workshop was designed to respond to the support needs they expressed in the East Africa needs assessment. That analysis highlighted a clear need for organizational financing, and the workshop thus focused on several key areas that prepare an organization to be “funder-ready.” [1]

Day 1 began with a participatory session on Theory of Change (TOC), a favorite of many programs that was led by Katie B. Wren, a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) training expert based in Tanzania. Put simply, a TOC tells the story of how a program believes change will happen based on its activities. It highlights what makes the program unique, and clearly shows its intended ultimate impact. Programs worked in small groups to select and articulate one TOC from a member of the group, including what assumptions and values are held in each step of the program’s logic.

TOC can be used not only for strategic development and planning, but also to communicate the impact that a program generates. This can be a powerful tool to present to funders, and may also serve as a schematic for the M&E of the program as a whole. Day 1 also included sessions on social marketing and M&E to build the ties between these topics for programs, to ultimately better link measurement with external communication and the development of a sustainable financing model.

Day 2 focused on two other key topics for program sustainability: 1) human resources management and 2) fundraising and business plan development. The latter, led by Sjef Ernes of Aqua for All, covered both how to get access to funding (including a variety of funding sources and models to consider) and how to be ready for funding (including understanding different partnerships, risk perception, and value propositions). Programs were also exposed to the several ‘reach back’ resources Aqua for All can provide, such as advising, evaluating, and funding innovative programs like the ones included in the Network.

To promote better financial management within organizations, R4D is also partnering with Accounting for International Development (AFID). AFID, who has previously worked with at least one of the WASH innovators, is a UK-based organization that partners professional accountants with social impact organizations around the world. AFID representatives teleconferenced into the East Africa workshop to present the opportunity and answer questions from programs, and the information and link to AFID will be shared with the full 134-program Network.

Day 3 concluded with a panel discussion with representatives from a variety of funding organizations that support innovative programs in the WASH sector: Aqua for All, Netfund, The Water Project, Segal Family Foundation, Avina Foundation, and GrowthAfrica. Workshop participants had an open conversation with the funders about what they really do (and don’t) look for in an organization to support. Funders shared their overall strategies with the innovators, as well as more specific topics, such as what their grant sizes are, what kinds of relationships they have with their grantees, and what types of soft and hard skills they look for in program leaders. The lessons learned are also being shared with the wider cohort of 134 programs to give those who were not able to attend the same kind of insight into the funders’ perspectives.

R4D is currently analyzing interviews and survey feedback from the 19 programs that attended the workshop, to inform the second East Africa workshop which will be held in early-mid 2016. Participants responded well to sessions on business development and funder insight, which aligned with the intended framing of the workshop around how to get “funder ready.” For more information about the innovators in the East Africa cohort, see a spotlight on them here, or go here to learn more about the first workshop and launch event held by our partner Dasra in Mumbai with a group of WASH innovators in India.

 

[1] Workshop facilitation provided by: Katie B. Wren; Richard Burns, EXP Social Marketing; Christina Banga; Veronica Aman, Human Capital Synergies; Sjef Ernes, Aqua for All; Charles Ogalo, MWA; Anna Pollock, MWA; and Peter Blair, R4D. Please contact WASH@r4d.org to get in touch with any of these individuals.

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Six Things Organizations Need to Know about WASH Funders

Emily Endres

WASH funders and on-the-ground program implementers—like many of you at not-for-profit, for-profit, and hybrid organizations—depend on one another. On-the-ground implementers depend on funding from foundations, bilaterals, or investors to finance the work that they do. While donors depend on on-the-ground implementers of programs to make sure their money is used to create social impact.

However, while donors seek the most effective organizations to implement programs in their focus areas, and organizations seek funding to make their programs effective and impactful, they often have difficulty connecting. Before an organization successfully wins funding or makes it to a certain stage of the application process, their interaction with funders may be limited, creating uncertainty around what a potential donor is looking for in a grantee.

Results for Development (R4D) and its regional partners Dasra in India and the Millennium Water Alliance in East Africa, saw an opportunity to open a dialogue between donors and program implementers in the WASH sector by holding funder panels during capacity building workshops for qualifying organizations in the WASH Impact Network. These panels brought together funders of WASH programs in each of the geographic regions, and asked them to answer some questions that could provide insight into the strategic priorities of donors, and what they look for in programs or organizations that they fund.

Through conversations held in India and East Africa, the following six attributes were identified as valuable by donors and investors when considering potential programs for funding:

1. Strong partnerships, networks, and connections with other organizations

In East Africa, funders such as Avina Foundation, Segal Family Foundation and the Water Project recognize the importance of working together and seeing the bigger picture when it comes to helping each other achieve the most impact by sharing knowledge and working together. Avina Foundation is especially interested in seeing this trait in organizations as part of their interest in promoting the spread of South-South collaboration and working with programs that are interested in sharing lessons across geographies. Segal Family Foundation even prioritizes giving funding to programs that are working with or have been recommended by one of their current grantees. In India, funders participating in the roundtable discussion highlighted the importance of both programs and donors to be active participants on existing platforms and networks such as the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA), the India Water Portal, and the India Sanitation Coalition.

2. Holistic solutions

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation participated in the funder roundtable discussion in India, and used their illustration of the sanitation value chain to highlight the importance of funding programs that understand how their program fits into the bigger picture, and ensures that their intervention is designed to strengthen or work in harmony with the rest of the stakeholders in the value chain. In addition, funders in India expressed particular interest in funding programs that take gender inclusivity into account, in both their program design and in their monitoring and evaluation (M&E) processes. Tata Trusts uses incentives to encourage organizations to be more gender inclusive. For example, for every woman that the partner employs, Tata Trusts sponsors one additional staff member. Segal Family Foundation and the Water Project also expressed that their foundations have a preference for funding programs that are holistic. Segal Family Foundation primarily focuses on reproductive health and youth empowerment, and therefore values WASH programs that recognize the role they play in supporting health systems and youth development. For example, a menstrual hygiene management program that contributes to the sexual and reproductive health of adolescent girls and women, or a WASH in schools program that recognizes how their program helps children stay in school and advance in their lives and careers.

3. Participatory programs designed by listening to the voices of the communities in which they work

Many funders also value programs that incorporate the communities in which they implement programs into the program design and activities. They want to see that programs are listening to the voices of the communities. Social businesses may be positioned to naturally respond to the demands of the community, because if their product or service does not meet the needs or aspirations of consumers, their business will not be successful. For this reason, donors like Aqua for All require “proof of concept”—research or projections based on prior sales—that show that the product or service is valued and needed by the community.

4. Collaborating with the government

In East Africa, several of the funders we heard from required that organizations or social businesses be legally registered with the government, or demonstrate strong government ties - including the Water Project and GrowthAfrica. (Although it’s important to note that other funders at this panel recognize that taking risks on grassroots organizations or small social businesses is part of their mission, and they actively fund and build capacity of non-registered programs. Some of these funders include NetFund, Water Project, GrowthAfrica and Avina Foundation.) Funders participating in the roundtable in India expressed the need for programs to work with the government at both the local level—such as with urban bodies to scale decentralized, non-networked sanitation systems—and the national level to integrate their programs into existing government schemes, and to advocate effectively for important policy changes using existing tools like the shit flow diagram.

5. Open communication and collaboration between funders and grantees

Funders on the panels in both India and East Africa expressed a desire to co-create programs with implementers, and value grantees that will engage in a conversation with grantors about their vision and strategy for the program. In India, funders said that this was especially important when it comes to designing M&E indicators that help program implementers to course correct and adapt when needed, while also helping donors measure the impact of their investment. Donors expressed a desire to work together with implementers to simplify M&E requirements and design common frameworks to use across programs in order to lighten the burden of resource-intensive M&E requirements. A willingness to engage in a conversation in which both donors and program implementers can be honest and contribute their experience and knowledge was expressed by funders across both regions.

6. Ability to tell a compelling story

Funders at the panel discussion in East Africa expressed the importance of programs being able to effectively tell their stories. This not only helps funders understand the vision and strategy of potential grantees, but it also helps donors demonstrate their own value to their stakeholders. It can help show donors that an organization is forward-thinking, and that the program has incorporated planning and thoughtful design. Donors want to see that programs understand their own theory of change and how their program delivers real impact in the lives of the communities in which they work. Being able to tell a story that is both compelling and strategic can help demonstrate to donors that your program or organization shares common values, including those in this list.

While the lessons above resulted from a discussion among a small selection of WASH funders, demonstrating these six qualities in a concept note, proposal, or conversation with potential funders can help highlight your ability as an organization to collaborate, communicate, and be strategic in your approach to addressing WASH challenges.

As a WASH program implementer, what do you think might be important to funders when considering a new program for funding or investment? Tell us what you think by emailing us at WASH@R4D.org. 

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