Lack of water supply sources and sanitation services is one of the most critical problems of many schools in rural Ethiopia. Students, especially younger ones, skip school in search of water and often drink water from unprotected traditional hand dug wells, rivers, and streams. As a result, school communities are exposed to various water borne diseases such as diarrhea, intestinal worms, stomach aches, fever, etc and students miss school.
Another issue is the lack of appropriate sanitation facilities for children and teachers. Girls often skip school during their menstrual period as there is no Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) facility in the school compound. Furthermore, students defecate outside in and around the school compound which in turn is detrimental to the health of both students and teachers. Occasionally, girls get raped in the bushes when they relieve themselves outside or during their period. In addition, due to the lack of sanitation facilities near schools, teachers sometimes miss school as well. The lack of sanitation facilities exacerbates the health situation and the teaching-learning process in the schools and is one of the main reasons for large numbers of students dropping out of school.