The program addresses the current limited, expensive, and inequitable access to water and sanitation services in the Rwenzori Region in Western Uganda. The rural communities here have a low capacity for self-organization, and demand for WASH services and the level of understanding of their importance is low. There is low willingness to pay for WASH services, and the general attitude is that the government should provide communities with water at no cost, except for community labor during implementation. In addition, communities have little knowledge of the causes and prevention of diseases, and many people do not engage in basic hygenic behaviors, such as regular hand-washing. Open defecation, poor safewater chain management, poor solid waste management at household and institutional levels are common.
There are also not enough toilet facilities in primary schools; on average, the pupil-latrine stance ratio in the Rwenzori region is at 75:1 as compared to the national target of 40:1. The quality of these existing facilities is quite low, and students are exposed to the risk of disease. Schools do not manage established WASH facilities and services effectively, reducing their sustainability.