One of the major barriers to sustainable food security and even commercial food production in Kenya and other parts of Eastern Africa is not a shortage of rainfall - or even a shortage of water - but a shortage of good water management. This particularly impacts rural areas and communities where long term water solutions are often lacking. Without local capacity to capture and store water that is abundantly available during the two rain seasons - for use during the extended dry seasons - it is unlikely that the long term production of food for local or commercial use can be realistically achieved or sustained, let alone increased – and that water and food security will remain an ongoing issue.
A second significant barrier to reliable food production in many parts of Africa - including Kenya - has been the high capital and maintenance cost of water management technology. Kenya has 5.4 million hectares of arable land, but only 17% of this land is suitable for rain-fed agriculture, leaving the remainder in need of irrigation and pumping technology. Petrol, electric, and manual treadle pumps are presently available in the market, but the effectiveness of these technologies is constrained by high capital costs, lack of maintenance and/or labour inefficiencies and critically, an inability for them to be maintained locally.